Freshly roasted coffee has a matchless aroma and is much more delicious than the one bought in the store. But, the main art is how to roast coffee beans?
Usually, experts advise not to buy roasted coffee beans but put your attention to unroasted beans. They are stored longer and do not lose their taste and aroma than the already roasted coffee.
You should purchase special cuisine to make coffee. Special cuisines help you to prepare a drink in which the taste and aroma are retained as much as possible. It includes a wide and deep frying pan. This frying pan should have a glass cover to control the frying process at all stages. By the way, the pan is also useful for those people who want to learn how to make coffee on the sand.
If you are not going to often roast coffee beans but want to understand why freshly roasted coffee is good, you do not need to buy a set for making coffee. You can use any frying pan, rinsing well, and igniting it beforehand. This is a necessary measure, as coffee perfectly absorbs aromas, and excess smell can spoil the drink.
Every detail counts in making good coffee, including the preparation of the coffee beans. It is no coincidence that the degree of roast and other nuances are indicated on the packaging. The taste of the finished drink, its aroma, and useful qualities for the body depend on roasting coffee beans at home.
What is Roasting? Types of Coffee Roasting
Usually, we get coffee in ready-made form; the buyer can only pour it into a Turk or a coffee machine. But true foodies prefer to cook it completely on their own, from the preparation of raw materials to the final preparation of the drink.
They do not trust anyone and the roasting process. This is the main component of success – the taste of coffee, its aroma, taste, and aftertaste depend on it. You can provide the coffee beans with an unrivaled taste during the process, or you can hopelessly ruin them.
There are eight degrees of roasting of beans:
- Cinnamon Roast – Coffee beans take on a light brown shade, are slightly enlarged, and give off the aroma of freshly baked bread. A rare type of roasting for sophisticated gourmet.
- Light or Continental Roast – light brown beans without oily;
- Medium – the coffee beans are roasted until a uniform brown or chestnut tone, completely without an oily sheen;
- City Roast – with this method, coffee beans acquire a deep rich shade of dark brown and evenly grow in size. Streaks of oils are visible on a smooth surface;
- Full City Roast or Seattle Way Roast – In this roasting process, Coffee beans turn dark brown or reddish-dark grains with a light oily film. The coffee will turn out to be saturated with all shades of taste.
- Viennese Roast – The second stage of clicks ends. Oil begins to stand out. The color becomes more vivid. There is a rich coffee aroma.
- Italian Roast – It is the extreme stage, during which all oils are lost. Coffee beans turn black, and highly oily grains smell like burning. The coffee smell disappears.
- French Roast or Dark Roast – coffee is roasted to a very dark reddish or black color with a rich. The acid is almost completely gone. The smell of burnt oil replaces the sweetness in the smell.
Why Roast Coffee?
Raw coffee beans are dense green seeds made up of about half carbohydrates and half a mixture of water, proteins, lipids, acids, and alkaloids. Green coffee most of all resemble peas in taste and smell, and in structure, it is just as reliable.
We do not recommend drinking green coffee in its pure form, and those who say that it is possible to lose weight with it are very mistaken; it is possible to get “adventures on the ass” in the literal sense, but to lose weight is unlikely.
Therefore, the green grain must be subjected to heat treatment to change the grain’s structure and biochemistry during the roasting process.
How to Roast Grains at Home – Roasting Methods for Coffee Beans
There are several ways to roast coffee beans at home, from simple rookie to master recipes.
The exact instructions for the correct roasting of coffee beans depend on the stove or apparatus’s power on which the procedure is carried out to the chosen degree.
The following are few ways to roast coffee at home.
In a Skillet or Saucepan on Gas or Electric Stove
Roasting beans using a skillet or pan is the easiest way to roast coffee. The pan must be made of aluminum without a non-stick coating and impeccably clean. Otherwise, the coffee beans will absorb the smell and taste of other previously cooked dishes. Ideally, there should be no carbon deposits or grease, buy new dishes, and use them only for this process.
The pan must first be set on fire over a fire for 15 seconds. The green coffee beans are poured onto a hot surface and immediately stirred with a wooden spatula or whisk. From the same moment, count the frying time on a stopwatch. It is better to fry in small portions of 100 grams, in case of failure, to not spoil a lot of the product at once. It also makes it easier to arouse the coffee.
The grains must be continuously turning over; not a single grain should be in one position for more than a second. This is the only way to fry beans evenly and thoroughly. As soon as the contents of the pan began to emit a constant crackle, start counting. This period is called grain development and should be no more than 25% of the roasting time.
On average, the total frying time is 8-15 minutes, but it depending on temperature, which means grain development is 2-4 minutes. If you overcook coffee, it will acquire an unpleasant smoky aftertaste or even a bitter, burning taste.
After that, the pan is immediately removed from the heat, and the coffee is poured onto a pre-prepared metal baking sheet. You cannot leave beans in the pan, even if you have already removed them from the heat – they will burn and spoil the coffee. The baking sheet should never be damp or dirty.
The faster the grains cool, the better; for this, you can put them by an open window. Now, the procedure is complete. It remains only to grind the cooled beans and brew fresh coffee according to your favorite recipe.
In the Oven
Preheat the oven to 230˚ and place a baking sheet with grains scattered on it. The baking sheet must have slots or other holes in the bottom for better and uniform roasting. Stir the coffee every 2-3 minutes and check the degree of doneness while stirring.
There are other ways: braziers, popcorn makers, and special roasters. The roasting principle is almost the same for each device. Regardless of the method, it is essential to remove the finished beans from the hot surface immediately, pour them onto a tray or other flat dish to speed up the cooling process. Then insist on the grain for a day, and after that, you can grind them and use them for their intended purpose.
How Coffee Changes When Roasting
Roasting with green coffee results in many changes, both internal and external:
The coffee beans’ color changes from green to yellow, then to brown, and then entirely to black. It depends on how you fry beans.
On the contrary, its density decreases by half, and the grain becomes more fragile.
It’s 12 to 24% weight loss, depending on its roast degree and moisture content. Coffee bean produces over 800 aromatic compounds inside.
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